Academic conventions and copyright law require that you acknowledge when you use the ideas of others. In most cases, this means stating which book or journal article is the source of an idea or quotation.
Information comes in many different structures (such as books, journal articles, reports), and in a number of different formats (print text, electronic text, digital image, video).
Each of these different types of information is laid out in a particular way, in order that enough information can be captured so that the reader can locate the original source.
For example, book references include information about the company that published that item; journal article references don’t include publisher information, but do include the journal title, volume and issue number.
A basic book reference is laid out like this:
Author, A.A., Author, B.B. & Author, C.C. (year). Title of work. Location: Publisher.
Brown, C.P., Green, H.W. & Snow, F.R. (2003). Economic sustainability in the developing countries. Milton: Wiley.
Periodicals include items published on a regular basis such as journals, magazines, newspapers and newsletters. A basic journal article reference is laid out like this:
Author, A.A., Author, B.B. & Author, C.C. (year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number (issue number), pp-pp.
An electronic journal article should also include information on how you can locate that information online (a DOI or URL), so a basic electronic journal article reference is laid out like this (note the extra field at the end): APA Referencing Guide 6th Ed 2014 UPDATE.docx
Author, A.A., Author, B.B. & Author, C.C. (year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number (issue number), pp-pp. doi: xx.xxxxxxxxxx
In a journal article reference, you put the journal title and volume number in italics, but not the article title. You capitalise the full title of the journal, but only the first word of the article title (and subtitle).
Smith, F.P., Arts, H.W. & Thomas, C.R. (2003). The influence of individual beliefs and values in financial decision-making process. Journal of Finance, 15(4), 47-58. doi:10.1017/S0022109011000123
Examples of end-text citation (reference list) layouts
Your reference list should include full entries for all of the material you have cited in the body of your written work. The layout of your entry will be different depending on the type of information you are referring to. Choose your layout based on what you are referencing:
- Journals, magazines and newspapers
- Website sources (including Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, web pages and web documents)
- Audio Visual media (movies, television)
- Government publications (statistics, legislation, government reports)
- Other sources (standards, reports, theses, datasets, conference proceedings, measurement instruments, patents, software, brochures)